Syntax and semantics of verbals in English
Syntax and semantics of verbals in English
Syntax and semantics of verbals in English
1.1. General characteristics of the work
1.2. Definition of the term «Verbals»
II. Main Part
Chapter 1 Grammatical overview of English verbals
2.1.1. General characteristics of English verbals
2.1.2. The Infinitive
2.1.3. General characteristics of Participles
2.1.4. The Gerund
Chapter 2 Syntax and Semantics of English Verbals
2.2.1. The functions of the Infinitive in the sentence
2.2.2. Infinitive constructions
2.2.3. Syntax and semantics of participles
2.2.4 Predicative constructions with the participles
2.2.5. Syntactical role of the Gerund
2.2.6. Constructions with the Gerund
2.2.7. Control exercises on verbals using
1.1 General characteristics of the work
The theme of my qualification work sounds as following: “Syntax and Semantics of Verbals in English”. This qualification work can be characterized by the following:
2. Actuality of the theme.
Verbals are the forms of the verb intermediary in many of their lexico-grammatical features between the verb and the non-processual parts of speech. The mixed features of these forms are revealed in the principal spheres of the part-of-speech characterisation, i.e. in their meaning, structural marking, combinability, and syntactic functions. The processual meaning is exposed by them in a substantive or adjectival-adverbial interpretation: they render processes as peculiar kinds of substances and properties. They are formed by special morphemic elements which do not express either grammatical time or mood (the most specific finite verb categories). They can be combined with verbs like non-processual lexemes (performing non-verbal functions in the sentence), and they can be combined with non-processual lexemes like verbs (performing verbal functions in the sentence). This is the very problem of the verbals in English grammar. So, standing on such ground, I consider that this problem is actual enough to be investigated.
3. The tasks and aims of the work.
1. The first task of my work is to give definition to term “verbals”.
2. The second task is to characterize each type of verbals from grammatical point of view.
3. The aim of third is to describe syntactical functions of each verbal.
4. The last task is to describe constructions with this verbals and their semantic meaning.
4. The novelty of the work.
I consider that the novelty of the work is revealed in new materials of the linguists which were published in the Internet. One more novelty is that I will include in this work some control exercises on verbals using, which I had worked out and approbated during my pedagogical practice.
5. Practical significance of the work.
In my opinion the practical significance of my work is hard to be overvalued. This work reflects modern trends in linguistics and I hope it would serve as a good manual for those who wants to master modern English language. Also this work can be used by teachers of English language for teaching English grammar.
6. Ways of scientific investigation used within the work.
The main method for compiling our work is the method of comparative analysis, translation method and the method of statistical research.
7. Fields of amplification.
The present work might find a good way of implying in the following spheres:
1. In High Schools and scientific circles of linguistic kind it can be successfully used by teachers and philologists as modern material for writing research works dealing with English verbals.
2. It can be used by teachers of schools, lyceums and colleges by teachers of English as a practical manual for teaching English grammar.
3. It can be useful for everyone who wants to enlarge his/her knowledge in English.
8. Linguists worked with the theme.
As the base for my qualification work I used the works of such world-known linguists as V. Kaushanskaya, B.I.Rogovskaya, B.A.Ilyish, Gordon E.M., O.Jespersen and others The full list of works and authors is mentioned in bibliography to this qualification paper.
9. Content of the work.
The present qualification work consists of four parts: introduction, the main part, conclusion and bibliography. It also includes the appendix where some interesting Internet materials, tables, schemes were gathered. Within the introduction part, which includes two items we gave the brief description of my qualification work (the first item) and gave general notion of the term “Verbals”. The main part of our qualification work includes several items. There I discussed such problems as main features of English verbals, their syntactic functions, described their role sentence, and semantical meanings of constructions with verbals. In the conclusion to my qualification work I tried to draw some results from the scientific investigations made within the main part of my qualification work. In bibliography part I mentioned more than 20 sources of which were used while compiling the present work. It includes linguistic books and articles dealing with the theme, a number of used dictionaries and encyclopedias and also some internet sources.
1.2 Definition of the Term “Verbals”
The words of every language fall into classes which are called Parts of Speech. Each part of speech has characteristics of its own. The parts of speech differ from each other in meaning, in form and in function.
One of the parts of speech is the Verb. According to content, the verb can be described as word denoting action, the term “action” embracing the meaning of activity (to walk, to speak, to play, to study, process (to sleep, to wait, to live), state (to be, to like, to know), relation (to consist, to resemble, to lack) and the like. According to form, it can be described as a word that has certain grammatical features that are not shared by other parts of speech; they have the category of tense, aspect, voice. According to the function, verb can be defined as a word making up the predicate of the sentence.
The English Verbs can be divided into two main groups, according to the function they perform in the sentence - the finite forms and non-finite forms. Ilyish B.L. “The Structure of English Language” M., 1971, p.178
The finite forms have the function of the predicate in the sentence and may also be called the predicate forms.
The non-finite or non-predicative forms can have various other functions. These forms are also called the verbals.
The non-finite forms or the verbals, unlike the finite forms of the verbs do not express person, number or mood. В.Л. Каушанская и др. Грамматика английского языка (на английском языке). 1973 M., c. 159 Therefore, they cannot be used as the predicate of a sentence. Like the finite forms of the verbs the verbals have tense and voice distinctions, but their tense distinctions differ from those of the finite verb.
There are three verbals in English: the participle, the gerund, and the infinitive. In Russian there are also three non-finite forms of the verb, but they do not fully coincide with those in the English language.
In English the verbals have the following characteristic traits:
a) They have a double nature: nominal and verbal. The participle combines the characteristics of a verb with those of an adjective; the gerund and the infinitive combine the characteristics of a verb with those of a known.
b) The tense distinctions of the verbals are not absolute like those of the finite verbs, but relative. The form of a verbal does not show whether the action it denotes refers to the present, past or future. It shows only whether the action expressed by the verbal is simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb or prior to it. В.Л. Каушанская и др. Грамматика английского языка (на английском языке). 1973 M. С. 161
In the sentence a verbal may occur.
a) singling (without accompanying words)
Eg. She went away smiling. - Она ушла, улыбаясь.
Reading is out of question, I can't fix my attention on books. - О чтении не может быть и речи, я не могу сосредоточить свое внимание на книгах.
b) in phrase (i.e. with one or several accompanying words - an object or an adverbial modifier to the verbal). The phrases form syntactic units serving as one part of the sentence. A phrase should not be confused with a predicative construction. Between the elements of a phrase there is no predicate relation as it does not include a noun or pronoun expressed by a verbal.
Eg. Not to disquiet his sister, he had said nothing to her of the matter. - Чтобы не тревожить сестру, он ничего не сказал ей об этом.
c) in predicative constructions.
Eg. She heard him open the door and go out the yard. - Она услышала, как он открыл дверь и вышел во двор.
All the verbals can form predicative constructions. They consist of two elements: a nominal (noun or pronoun) and a verbal (participle, gerund or infinitive). The verbal element stands in predicate relation to the nominal element. That is to say it stands in the subject and the predicate of the sentence. It most cases predicative constructions form syntactic units, serving as one part of the sentence.
Eg. The sat down to supper, Jerry still talking cheerfully. - Они сели ужинать; Джери продолжал весело разговаривать.
“Jerry still talking cheerfully” is a predicate relation to the noun Jerry, which denotes the doer of the action expressed by the participle.
II. Main Part
Chapter 1 Grammatical Overview of English Verbals
2.1.1 General Characteristics of English Verbals
The verb has finite and non-finite forms, the latter being also called verbals. The verbals, unlike the finite forms of the verb, do not express person, number or mood. Therefore they cannot be used as the predicate of a sentence.
Like the finite forms of the verb the verbals have tense and voice distinctions, but their tense distinctions differ greatly from those of the finite verb.
There are three verbals in English: the participle, the gerund and the infinitive.
In Russian we also have three non-finite forms of the verb, but they do not fully coincide with those in the English language (причастие, деепричастие, инфинитив).
The characteristic traits of the verbals.
The characteristic traits of the verbals are as follows:
1. They have a double nature, nominal and verbal. The participle combines the characteristics of a verb with those of an adjective; the gerund and the infinitive combine the characteristics of a verb with those of a noun.
2. The tense distinctions of the verbals are not absolute (like those of the finite verb), but relative; the form of a verbal does not show whether the action it denotes refers to the present past or future; it shows only whether the action expressed by the verbal is simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb or prior to it.
3. All the verbals can form predicative constructions, i.e. constructions consisting of two elements, a nominal (noun or pronoun) and a verbal (participle, gerund or infinitive); the verbal element stands in predicate relation to the nominal element, i.e. in a relation similar to that between the subject and the predicate of the sentence. In most cases predicative constructions form syntactic units, serving as one part of the sentence.
They sat down to supper, Manston still talking cheerfully. (Hardy)
Они сели ужинать; Мэнстон продолжал весело разговаривать.
Manston still talking cheerfully, is a predicative construction with a participle: the participle talking stands in predicate relation to the noun Manston, which denotes the doer of the action expressed by the participle.
In the sentence a verbal may occur:
(a) singly, i.e. without accompanying words.
She... went away smiling. (Dreiser)
Она... ушла, улыбаясь.
Reading is out of the question -- I can't fix my attention on books. (Collins)
О чтении не может быть и речи -- я не могу сосредоточить свое внимание на книгах.
To decide is to act.
Решить -- значит начать действовать.
(b) in phrases, i.e. with one or several accompanying words (an object or an adverbial modifier to the verbal). The phrases form syntactic units serving as one part of the sentence.
A phrase should not be confused with a predicative construction: between the elements of a phrase there is no predicate relation as it does not include a noun or pronoun denoting the doer of the action expressed by a verbal.
The windows of the drawing-room opened to a balcony overlooking the garden. (Mansfield)
Окна гостиной выходили на балкон, с которого был виден сад.
She tried to tranquillize him by reading aloud. (Gaskell)
Она пыталась успокоить его тем, что читала ему вслух.
Not to disquiet his sister, he had said nothing to her of the matter. (Hardy)
Чтобы не встревожить сестру, он ничего не сказал ей об этом.
(c) in predicative constructions.
My mistress being dead..., I had to look out for a new place.
Так как моя хозяйка умерла, мне пришлось искать другое место.
There is no mistake about his being a genius. (Shaw)
Не может быть никакого сомнения в том, что он -- гений.
She heard him unbar the door and go out into the yard. (Hardy)
Она слышала, как он отодвинул засов и вышел во двор.
2.1.2 The Infinitive
The infinitive representing an action in its most general form is often treated as an initial form of the verb Шахматов А.А. Синтаксис русского языка. Вып, 11, Л., 1977, p.43, but from the point of view of some linguists Каушанская и др. Грамматика английского языка (на английском языке) с. 195 the infinitive developed from the "Verbal noun,' which in course of time became verbalized, retaining at the same time some of its nominal properties. Thus in Modern English the infinitive, like the participle and the gerund, has a double nature, nominal and verbal.
1. The nominal character of the infinitive is manifested in its syntactic functions. The infinitive can be used:
(a) as the subject of a sentence.
To go on like this was dangerous. (Galsworthy)
(b) as a predicative.
Her plan was now to drive to Bath during the night. (Hardy)
(c) as an object.
I have never learnt to read or write. (Collins)
2. The verbal characteristics of the infinitive are as follows:
(a) the infinitive of transitive verbs can take a direct object.
He ... began to feel some curiosity ... (Eliot)
(b) the infinitive can be modified by an adverb.
I cannot write so quickly.
(c) the infinitive has tense and aspect distinctions; the infinitive of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions.
In Modern English the infinitive has the following forms:
The tense and aspect distinctions of the infinitive.
Like the tense distinctions of all verbals those of the infinitive are not absolute but relative.
1. The Indefinite Infinitive expresses an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb, so it may refer to the present, past or future.
I am glad to meet you. (Dreiser)
I was glad to see Mr. Paul. (Ch. Bronte)
Mr. Forsyte will be very glad to see you. (Galsworthy)
2. The Continuous Infinitive also denotes an action simultaneous with that expressed by the finite verb, but it is an action in progress. Thus the continuous infinitive is not only a tense form, but also an aspect form, expressing both time relations and the manner in which the action is presented.
They happened, at the moment, to be standing near a small conservatory at the end of the garden. (Collins)
В этот момент они как раз стояли около небольшой оранжереи в конце сада.
3. The Perfect Infinitive denotes an action prior to the action expressed by the finite verb.
"I'm glad to have seen you," he said. (Dreiser)
«Я рад, что повидал вас», -- сказал он.
An intimate friend is said to have dined with him that day. (Hardy)
Говорят, что в этот день у него обедал его близкий друг.
After such verbs as to mean, to expect, to intend, to hope used in the Past Indefinite, the Perfect Infinitive shows that the hope or intention was not carried out.
I meant to have gone there.
Я собирался пойти туда (но не пошел).
I meant to have given you five shillings this morning for a Christmas-box, Sam. I'll give it you this afternoon, Sam. (Dickens)
Я хотел подарить вам пять шиллингов на рождество, Сэм; я подарю их вам сегодня, Сэм.
The same meaning can be conveyed by the Past Perfect of the finite verb followed by the Indefinite Infinitive.
I had meant to go there.
He had meant to marry me. (Eliot)
Он имел намерение жениться на мне.
Some English grammarians prefer the latter construction.
Note. -- The idea, however, is often expressed in the following way: I meant to go there, but never did.
4. The Perfect Continuous Infinitive denotes an action which lasted a certain time before the action of the finite verb. It is not only a tense form, but also an aspect form.
For about ten days we seemed to have been living on nothing but cold meat, cake and bread and jam. (Jerome)
Дней десять мы, казалось, питались только холодным мясом, печеньем и хлебом с вареньем.
The voice distinctions of the infinitive.
The infinitive of transitive verbs has special forms for the Active and the Passive Voice:
It is so glorious to love and to be loved... (Stone)
Так прекрасно любить и быть любимым.
In sentences with the construction there is the infinitive of some verbs can be active or passive without any change in the meaning:
There's no time to lose. (Dreiser)
There is no time to be lost. (Eliot)
There is nothing to fear (to be feared).
The use of the infinitive without the particle to (the bare infinitive).
In Modern English the infinitive is chiefly used with the particle to Ganshina M., Vasilevskaya N., English Grammar, M., 1973, p.213. In Old English to was a preposition used with the infinitive in the dative case to indicate purpose (to writenne meant 'in order to write'). Later on to was re-interpreted as the formal sign of the infinitive and came to be used not only to denote purpose but in other cases as well. Still there are cases when the so-called bare infinitive (the infinitive without the particle to) is used. Ganshina M., Vasilevskaya N., English Grammar, M., 1973, p.214 They are as follows:
1. After auxiliary verbs.
I don't understand the meaning of this passage.
We shall go there at once.
2. After modal verbs except the verb ought.
If one cannot have what one loves, one must love what one has (Wilson)
3. After verbs denoting sense perception, such as to hear, to see, to feel etc.
In a few minutes they heard him ascend the ladder to his own room. (Hardy)
Через несколько минут они услышали, что он поднимается но лестнице в свою комнату.
I never saw, you look so before. (Hardy)
Я никогда не видел, чтобы вы так хорошо выглядели.
I felt my heart jump. (Heym)
Я почувствовал, что у меня ёкнуло сердце.
The verb to be after the verb to feel is used with the particle to: I felt this to be very true.
(Dickens) Я чувствовал, что это совершенно верно.
4. After the verb to let.
Let us be the best friends in the world! (Dickens)
5. After the verb “to make” in the meaning of 'заставлять' and the verb “to have” in the meaning of 'заставлять, допускать, велеть'.
What makes you think so? (Carter)
Что заставляет вас так думать?
I... had them take my baggage. (Hemingway)
Я... велел им взять мой багаж.
The verb to have in the meaning of 'допускать' is chiefly used after the modal verbs will and would in negative sentences.
I will not have you call him Daniel any more. (Trollope)
Я не допущу, чтобы вы продолжали называть его Даниэлем.
1 would not have you think that I am selfish. (Trollope)
Я не допущу, чтобы вы считали меня эгоистом.
6. After the verb to know when its meaning approaches that of to see, to observe (the verb to know never has this meaning in the Present Indefinite).
I have so often known a change of medicine work wonders. (Shaw)
Я так часто замечала, что перемена лекарства творит чудеса.
In this case, however, the particle to is sometimes used:
I have never known her to weep before. (Cronin)
Я никогда, раньше не видел, чтобы она плакала.
After the verbs `to hear', `to see', `to make' and `to know' in the Passive Voice the to-Infinitive is used.
He was heard to mention your name several times.
Слышали, как он несколько раз упомянул ваше имя.
They were seen to leave the house early in the morning.
Видели, что они рано утром вышли из дома.
The child was made to obey.
Ребенка заставили слушаться.
Sir Pitt Crawley was never known to give away a shilling or to do a good action.
Никто никогда не видел, чтобы сэр Питт Кроули дал кому-нибудь шиллинг или сделал доброе дело.
7. After the verb to bid.
I bowed and waited, thinking she would bid me take a seat. (E. Bronte)
Я поклонился и подождал, думая, что она предложит мне сесть.
The verb to bid is obsolete and is not used in colloquial speech.
8. After the expressions had better, would rather, would sooner, cannot but, nothing but, cannot choose but.
You had better go to bed and leave the patient to me. (Shaw)
Вы бы лучше легли спать и оставили пациента на моем попечении.
I would rather not speak upon the subject. (Hardy),
Я бы предпочел не говорить на эту тему.
I would sooner die here, .at your feet ... than see you married to such a one as that. (Trollope)
Я предпочел бы умереть здесь, у ваших ног ..., чем видеть вас замужем за таким человеком.
1 cannot but think so. (Trollope)
Я не могу не думать так.
There was nothing left for him to do but watch and wait.
Единственное, что ему оставалось, -- это наблюдать и ждать.
She does nothing but make scenes from morning till night. (Shaw)
Она только и делает, что устраивает сцены с утра до ночи.
I looked long at that picture, and could not choose but look. (Ch. Bronte)
Я долго смотрела на эту картину и не могла не смотреть на нее.
`Had better', `would rather', `to do nothing but' belong to colloquial English, whereas cannot but and cannot choose but are characteristic of elevated style.
9. In sentences of a special type (infinitive sentences) beginning with why.
Why not come and talk to her yourself? (Reade)
Почему бы нам самой не прийти поговорить с ней?
The particle to is often used without the infinitive if it is easily understood from the context.
He and his three men could not defend Rollingen even if they wanted to. (Heym)
Он и трое его солдат не могли бы оборонять Роллинген, даже если бы захотели.
The particle `to' may be separated from the infinitive by an adverb; this is the so-called split infinitive. It is hardly ever used in colloquial English.
He was unable, however, to long keep silence. (Galsworthy)
Он был, однако, не в состоянии долго молчать.
2.1.3 General Characteristics of Participles
The participle is a non-finite form of the verb which has a verbal and an adjectival or an adverbial character. Бархударов Л. С., Штелинг Д. А.. Грамматика английского языка. М., 1960, с.135
There are two participles in English -- Participle I and Participle II, traditionally called the Present Participle and the Past Participle.
These traditional terms are open to objection on the ground that Participle I does not necessarily refer to the present, just as Participle II need not refer to the past. The difference between them is not a difference in tense, but chiefly a difference in voice.
Participle I is formed by adding the suffix -ing Зятковская Р.Г. Суффиксальная система современного английского языка. - М., 1971. - 187 c. to the stem of the verb; the following spelling rules should be observed:
(a) If a verb ends in a mute e, the mute e is dropped before adding the suffix -ing: to give -- giving, to close -- closing.
(b) If a verb ends in a consonant preceded by a vowel rendering a short stressed sound, the final consonant is doubled before adding the suffix -ing: to run -- running, to forget -- forgetting, to admit-- admitting.
A final l is doubled if it is preceded by a vowel letter rendering a short vowel sound, stressed or unstressed: to expel--expelling, to travel -- travelling.
(c) The verbs to die, to lie and to tie form Participle I in the following way: dying, lying, tying.
A final у is not changed before adding the suffix -ing: to comply -- complying, to deny -- denying.
The formation of Participle II.
According to the way in which the Past Indefinite and Participle II are formed, verbs are divided into three groups: regular verbs, irregular verbs, and mixed verbs.
1. Regular verbs. They form the Past Indefinite and Participle II by adding -ed to the stem of the verb, or only -d if the stem of the verb ends in -e. Зятковская Р.Г. Суффиксальная система современного английского языка. - М., 1971. - 188 с.
to want --wanted
The pronunciation of -ed (-d) depends on the sound preceding it. It is pronounced:
[эd] after t, d:
wanted [w?ntэd], landed [lжndэd]
[d] after voiced consonants except d and after vowels:
opened ['?up?nd], played [pleэd];
[t] after voiceless consonants except t:
The following spelling rules should be observed:
(a) Final у is changed into i before the addition of -ed if it is preceded by a consonant.
to carry -- carried
у remains unchanged if it is preceded by a vowel.
to enjoy -- enjoyed
(b) If a verb ends in a consonant preceded by a short stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled.
to stop --stopped
Final r is doubled if it is preceded by a stressed vowel.
to occur --- occurred
Final r is not doubled when preceded by a diphthong,
to appear -- appeared
Final l is doubled if it is preceded by a short vowel, stressed or unstressed:
to compel -- compelled
2. Irregular verbs. Here belong the following groups of verbs:
(a) verbs which change their root vowel.
to sing --sang -- sung
(b) verbs which change their root vowel and add -en for Participle II.
to speak --spoke --spoken
(c) verbs which change their root vowel and add -d or -t.
to sell --sold --sold
(d) verbs which change their final -d into -t.
to send --sent --sent
(e) verbs which have the same form for the Infinitive, Past Indefinite and Participle II.
to put -- put -- put
(f) verbs whose forms come from different stems.
to be -- was, were -- been
to go -- went -- gone
(g) special irregular verbs.
to have -- had -- had
to make -- made -- made
to do --did --done
(h) defective (anomalous) verbs.
can -- could
may -- might
will -- would
shall -- should
3. Mixed verbs, their Past Indefinite is of the regular type, and their Participle It is of the irregular type:
to show -- showed -- shown
As has already been stated, the participle has a verbal and an adjectival or adverbial character. Its adjectival or adverbial character is manifested in its syntactic functions, those of attribute or adverbial modifier. (Some participles have lost their verbality altogether and have become adjectives: interesting, charming, alarming, etc., complicated, distinguished, furnished, etc.
E.g. an interesting book, a charming girl, the alarming news; a complicated problem, a distinguished writer, a furnished apartment.)
I hated the hollow sound of the rain pattering on the roof. (Du Marnier) (attribute)
Мне был отвратителен глухой шум дождя, стучавшего по крыше.
And then she turned to the title-page, and looked at the name written in the schoolboy hand. (Ch. Bronte) (attribute)
Затем она открыла книгу па титульном листе и посмотрела на имя, написанное ученическим почерком.
The verbal characteristics of the participle are as follows:
1. Participle I of a transitive verb can take a direct object.
Opening the door, he went out on to the terrace. (Galsworthy)
2. Participle I and Participle II can be modified by an adverb.
Leaving the room hurriedly, he ran out. (Thackeray)
Deeply affected, Priam Farll rose and left the room. (Bennett)
3. Participle I has tense distinctions; Participle I of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions. In Modern English Participle I has the following forms:
The tense distinctions of the participle.
Like the tense distinctions of all the verbals, those of the participle are not absolute but relative.
Participle I Indefinite Active and Passive usually denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb; depending on the tense-form of the finite verb it may refer to the present, past, or future.
When reading The Pickwick Papers, one can't help laughing.
When reading The Pickwick Papers, I couldn't help laughing.
When reading The Pickwick Papers, you will roar with laughter.
He looked at the carpet while waiting for her answer. (Galsworthy)
Он смотрел на ковер, ожидая ее ответа.
Me returned to the hut, bringing in his arms a new-born lamb. (Hardy)
Он вернулся в хижину, неся на руках новорожденного ягненка.
Being left alone, Pauline and I kept silence for some time. (Ch. Bronte)
Оставшись одни, мы с Полиной некоторое время молчали.
Sometimes Participle I Indefinite denotes an action referring to no particular time.
The last turning had brought them into the high-road leading to Bath. (Hardy)
После последнего поворота они вышли на дорогу, ведущую (которая вела) в Бат.
Participle I Perfect Active and Passive denotes an action prior to the action expressed by the finite verb.
Mr. Bumble, having spread a handkerchief over his knees..., began to eat and drink. (Dickens)
Мистер Бамбл, разостлав платок на коленях..., стал есть и пить.
They were, indeed, old friends, having been at school together. (Walpole)
Они и в самом деле были старыми друзьями, так как вместе учились в школе.
It should be noted that a prior action is not always expressed by Participle I Perfect: with some verbs of sense perception and motion, such as to see, to hear, to come, to arrive, to seize, to look, to turn and some others, Participle I Indefinite is used even when priority is meant.
Turning down an obscure street and entering an obscurer lane, lie went up to a smith's shop. (Hardy)
Свернув на темную улицу и войдя в еще более темный переулок, он подошел к кузнице.
Hearing a footstep below he rose and went to the top of the stairs. (Hardy)
Услышав шаги внизу, он встал и вышел на лестницу.
Participle II has no tense distinctions; it has only one form which can express both an action simultaneous with, and prior to the action expressed by the finite verb; the latter case is more frequent.
His sister's eyes fixed on him with a certain astonishment, obliged him at last to look at Fleur. (Galsworthy)
Взгляд сестры, устремленный на него с некоторым недоумением, заставил его, наконец, взглянуть на Флер.
I was reminded of a portrait seen in a gallery. (Du Maurier)
Мне вспомнился портрет, который я видела в картинной галерее.
In some cases Participle II denotes an action referring to no particular time.
He is a man loved and admired by everybody.
The voice distinctions of the participle.
Participle I of transitive verbs has special forms to denote the active and the passive voice.
When writing letters lie does not like to be disturbed.
Being written in pencil the letter was difficult to make out.
Having written some letters he went to post them.
Having been written long ago the manuscript was illegible.
Participle II of transitive verbs has a passive meaning, e. g. a broken glass, a caged bird. Participle II of intransitive verbs has no passive meaning; it is used only in compound tense-forms and has no independent [unction in the sentence unless it belongs to a verb which denotes passing into a new state, e. g. a withered flower, a faded leaf.
2.1.4 The Gerund
The gerund developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized preserving at the same time its nominal character. The gerund is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb, and coincides in form with Participle I. World Book Encyclopedia Vol.1 NY. 1993 p.298
As a natural result of its origin and development the gerund has nominal and verbal properties. The nominal characteristics of the gerund are as follows:
1. The gerund can perform the function of subject, object and predicative.
They say smoking leads to meditation. (Collins) (SUBJECT)
I like making people happy. (Shaw) (OBJECT)
The duty of all progressive mankind is fighting for peace. (PREDICATIVE)
2. The gerund can be preceded by a preposition.
I am very, very tired of rowing. (Hemingway)
3. Like a noun the gerund can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun.
"I wonder at Jolyon's allowing this engagement," he said to Aunt Ann. (Galsworthy)
«Меня удивляет, что Джолион допустил эту помолвку», -- сказал он тетушке Энн.
Is there any objection to my seeing her? (Galsworthy)
Кто-нибудь возражает против того, чтобы я повидался с ней?
The verbal characteristics of the gerund are the same as those of the participle:
1. The gerund of transitive verbs can take a direct object.
1 had now made a good progress in understanding and speaking their language. (Swift)
2. The gerund can be modified by an adverb.
She burst out crying bitterly. (Hardy)
3. The gerund has tense- distinctions; the gerund of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions. The forms of the gerund in Modern English are as follows:
There is no gerund in the Russian language and the English gerund is rendered in Russian in different ways: Швейцер А.Д. Теория перевода (статус, проблемы, аспекты). М., 1988. c.98
(a) by a noun.
Dancing had not begun yet... (Mansfield)
Танцы еще не начались.
(b) by an infinitive.
She had tea with Cipriano before leaving. (Lawrence)
Перед тем как уйти, она выпила чаю с Чиприано.
It is no good hiding our heads under our wings. (Galsworthy)
Бесполезно прятать голову под крыло.
(c) by “деепричастие”.
And without waiting for her answer he turned and left us. (Du Maurier)
И, не дожидаясь ее ответа, он повернулся и вышел.
On seeing Bella he stopped, beckoned her to him, and drew her arm through his. (Dickens)
Увидев Беллу, он остановился, подозвал ее к себе и взял под руку.
(d) by a subordinate clause.
He regretted now having come. (Galsworthy)
Теперь он сожалел, что пришел.
It should be observed that though the active forms of the gerund may be rendered in different ways, the passive forms are nearly always rendered by a clause.
As she contemplated the wide windows and imposing signs, she became conscious of being gazed upon. (Dreiser)
Когда она рассматривала широкие витрины и внушительные вывески, она почувствовала, что на нее смотрят.
After having been informed of the conference in my lady's room he immediately decided on waiting to hear the news from Frizinghall. (Collins)
После того как ему сообщили о совещании в комнате миледи, он сразу решил подождать, чтобы узнать новости из Фризингхолла.
The tense distinctions of the gerund.
The tense distinctions of the gerund; like those of the participle, are not absolute but relative.
1. The Indefinite Gerund Active and Passive denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb; depending on the tense form of the finite verb it may refer to the present, past, or future.
He can swim for any number of hours without tiring. (Hichens)
Он может плыть много часов подряд, не уставая.
She walked on without turning her head. (Hardy)
Она шла, не поворачивая головы.
2. The Perfect Gerund denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb.
She denies having spoken with him.
Она отрицает, что говорила с ним.
He was ashamed of having shown even the slightest irritation. (Bennett)
Ему было стыдно, что он проявил раздражение, хотя и очень слабое.
However, a prior action is not always expressed by a Perfect Gerund; in some cases we find an Indefinite Gerund. This occurs after the verbs to remember, to excuse, to forgive, to thank and after the prepositions on (upon), after, and, without.
I don't remember hearing the legend before. (Hardy)
Я не помню, чтобы я когда-нибудь слышала эту легенду.
You must excuse my not answering you before. (Collins)
Вы должны извинить меня за то, что я не ответил вам раньше.
I thank you for restraining me just now. (Ch. Bronte)
Я благодарен вам за то, что вы сейчас помогли мне сдержаться.
On leaving the house we directed our steps to the nearest shade. . (Collins)
Выйдя из дома, мы направились в тень.
The Perfect Gerund may also be used after the above mentioned verbs and prepositions.
He did not remember having been in that room. (Galsworthy)
Он не помнил, чтобы когда-нибудь был в этой комнате.
The voice distinctions of the gerund.
The gerund of transitive verbs has special forms for the active and the passive voice.
He liked neither reading aloud nor being read aloud to. (Maugham)
Он не любил ни читать вслух, ни слушать чтение.
It is to be observed that after the verbs to want, to need, to deserve, to require and the adjective worth the gerund is used in the active form, though it is passive in meaning.
"The slums want attending to, no doubt," he said. (Galsworthy)
«Без сомнения, трущобами надо заняться», -- сказал он.
He realized that his room needed painting.
Он понял, что его комнату надо покрасить.
Differences Between Gerund and the Participle/Verbal Noun
The gerund and the participle.
In most cases the differentiation between the gerund and the participle does not present any difficulty.
Unlike the participle the gerund may be preceded by a preposition, it may be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun; it can be used in the function of a subject, object, and predicative. In the function of an attribute and of an adverbial modifier both the gerund and the participle may be used, but the gerund in these functions is always preceded by a preposition.
There are cases, however, when the differentiation between the gerund and the participle presents some difficulty; for instance, it is not always easy to distinguish between a gerund as part of a compound noun and a participle used as an attribute to a noun. One should bear in mind that if we have a gerund as part of a compound noun, the person or thing denoted by the noun does not perform the action expressed by the ing-form: e.g. a dancing-hall (a hall for dancing), a cooking-stove (a stove for cooking), walking shoes, a writing-table, etc. B.S. Khaimovich, B.I. Rogovskaya. A Course in English Grammar. 1966 p. 98
If we have a participle used as an attribute the person denoted by the noun performs the action expressed by the mg-form: e.g. a dancing girl (a girl who dances), a singing child, etc.
However, there are cases which admit of two interpretations; for example a sewing machine may be understood in two ways: a machine for sewing and a machine which sews; a hunting dog may be a dog for hunting and a dog that hunts.
The gerund and verbal noun.
The gerund should not be confused with the verbal noun, which has the same suffix -ing. The main points of difference between the gerund and the verbal noun are as follows:
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