Genocide in Australia



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Genocide in Australia

Genocide in Australia

Gnocid in ustrli

Indd, in rspons to th High Court's Wik dcision, th Colition govrnmnt undr John Howrd hs introducd mndmnts to th Ntiv Titl ct (known s th 10-point pln), which im to xtinguish ntiv titl in ll but nm, prptuting th cycl of dispossssion nd lintion. In wht hs bn dscribd (not only by socilists nd borigins thmslvs) s th biggst lnd grb sinc 1788, Howrd's lgisltion tks from th borigins to giv to th richst pstorlists in th lnd. t th tim of writing, th Snt hs rjctd this lgisltion for th scond tim, stting th scn for doubl dissolution nd gnrl lction.

Howrd drids wht h clls th blck rmbnd viw of history - tht is, history which tlls th truth bout wht hppnd to th borigins nd Torrs Strit Islndrs nd how ustrli's wlth ws built on th thft of thir lnd. H dos so for both prgmtic nd idologicl rsons: to dvntg his rich mts nd mk ustrli sf for th mining compnis, pstorl intrsts nd cpitlism gnrlly, nd to justify his ssult on th gins Indignous popl hv md in rcnt yrs, mgr s thy r.

Th Howrd govrnmnt hs lso givn th go-hd to nrgy Rsourcs ustrli's Jbiluk urnium min, situtd on th trditionl lnds of th Mirrr popl in th World Hritg-listd Kkdu Ntionl Prk, in dirct contrvntion of th wishs of th trditionl ownrs. Onc gin, th rights of Indignous popl hv bn trmpld ovr in th rush to mk profits.

Th govrnmnt thrfor wnts to swp th Stoln Gnrtions rport undr th tbl. crucil spct of its strtgy to nrich th minrs nd pstorlists is to dny ny spiritul or trditionl connction with th lnd s th bsis for ntiv titl clim - nd this is th only kind of clim mny of th stoln gnrtions cn mk.

Thy must not b llowd to gt wy with it. In th pst, Indignous popl hv won rights through struggls - such s th frdom rids, th Gurindji strik nd th boriginl Tnt mbssy - in which thy nd thir supportrs took to th strts to gin populr support. Tody, w nd tht kind of fight gin.

Opinion polls, th numbrs who ttnd dmonstrtions in support of Indignous rights nd th stblishmnt of orgnistions lik Dfndrs of Ntiv Titl nd th Jbiluk ction Groups show tht thr is widsprd support for justic for Indignous ustrlins. Tht support nds to b mobilisd into powrful movmnt tht cn stop Howrd nd turn th tid ginst th rising rcism tht h hs fostrd.

This pmphlt looks t som of th issus risd by th Stoln Gnrtions rport - nd in prticulr ddrsss th criticisms nd disclimrs mnting from th Howrd govrnmnt nd its supportrs in big businss - not to mntion Pulin Hnson nd hr rcist On Ntion orgnistion. In ordr to build th kind of movmnt dscribd bov, w nd to b bl to countr Howrd's rgumnts with th rl fcts. Hopfully this pmphlt is smll contribution to building such movmnt.

In 1949, Millicnt ws four yrs old. Tht's whn sh nd fiv of hr siblings wr tkn from thir prnts nd plcd in institutions. Sh nvr sw ny of thm gin, prt from on brothr who ws subsquntly rmovd to nothr institution.

Th uthoritis told Millicnt tht hr prnts didn't wnt hr, whn ctully thy prvntd thm from visiting hr. ftr horrific childhood consisting lrgly of domstic srvitud, btings nd rligious indoctrintion, Millicnt ws snt into unpid domstic srvic, whr sh ws rpd, bshd nd slshd with rzor for rsisting. On rporting th rp, sh ws btn for lying. Th rsulting prgnncy rnd hr yt mor btings. Millicnt ws ovrjoyd to hv bby - somon sh could lov - but hr joy ws shortlivd. Thy took hr bby wy nd told hr th infnt hd did - li only rvld whn th two wr runitd mny yrs ltr.

Th immns humn trgdy of th stoln gnrtions is md up of thousnds of storis lik Millicnt's.

Th prctic of forcibl rmovl of Indignous childrn from thir fmilis hs long nd dishonourbl history, dting bck to th vry bginning of uropn sttlmnt in ustrli. Th rly sttlrs oftn simply kidnppd childrn to work for thm, s prsonl or domstic srvnts, or on th lnd. Thy wr ffctivly nslvd: pid no wgs nd supplid with only th brst ncssitis of food, shltr nd clothing. In th north of ustrli, this typ of thing ws hppning up to th rly twntith cntury.

Whil sttlrs stol childrn purly for prsonl gin, govrnmnts nd churchs cm up with rng of idologicl justifictions for th prctic of systmticlly rmoving childrn from thir fmilis. Ths justifictions, though on occsion prsntd s in som sns bnvolnt, ld to th sm outcom for thir boriginl nd Islndr victims - livs of misry nd physicl, culturl nd spiritul dprivtion.

Th motivtion of th missionris nd govrnmnts lso rflct dp undrlying rcism. borigins nd Torrs Strit Islndrs wr sn s bckwrd nd brbric, incpbl of dtrmining thir own futur nd thrfor without rights. Thy hd to b civilisd, thir lngugs, cultur nd wy of lif dstroyd, so tht thy could tk thir plc - subordint on, nturlly - in uropn socity. Crucilly, thy wr to b inculctd with uropn vlus nd work hbits so tht thy would b fit for srvic to th colonil sttlrs.

You didn't hv to scrtch th surfc vry fr to find th rl motivtions bhind smingly ltruistic ctions. In 1814, for xmpl, Govrnor Mcquri fundd school for boriginl childrn. Within fw yrs, howvr, it bcm obvious to Indignous fmilis tht th rl purpos of th school ws to distnc th childrn from thir fmilis nd communitis. This ws n ssntil stp in th procss of sprting Indignous popl from thir lnd, which ws ncssry to fr th lnd for cpitlist xploittion.

Mnwhil, colonil uthoritis wr doing nothing to curb th brutl ctivitis of th sttlrs. It ws th British govrnmnt, mbrrssd by rports of frqunt msscrs nd trocitis, which movd to ppoint Slct Committ into th condition of th boriginl popl. But th rsult of this, fr from providing ny rlif for Indignous popl, ws th stblishmnt of lgl mchnisms to control th Indignous popultion, rstrict thir movmnts nd rights nd rmov thir childrn. ll this wnt on in th nm of protction.

long with protction wnt sgrgtion. Mny borigins, thrown off thir lnd, dprivd of th mns of subsistnc nd forcd into dpndnc on govrnmnt hndouts, driftd to th towns nd st up cmps. Th invitbl povrty, mlnutrition nd diss in th cmps md thm n mbrrssmnt to th sttlrs nd th colonil govrnmnts. So it ws plnnd to rmov Indignous popl to rsrvs in rs th uropns didn't wnt, sgrgting thm from th whit popultion nd rstricting thir movmnt. By 1911, th Northrn Trritory nd vry Stt xcpt Tsmni hd som form of protctionist lgisltion, giving th govrnmnt-ppointd Protction Bord or Chif Protctor virtully totl control ovr vry spct of borigins' livs, nd, crucilly, lgl gurdinship of ll th childrn. Th shm of protction ws indictd by th fct tht th nforcmnt of protctionist lgisltion ws crrid out by protctors who wr usully polic officrs.

Th xcption, Tsmni, simply rmovd ll its boriginl inhbitnts to Cp Brrn Islnd nd thrftr climd it hd no boriginl popultion, just fw hlf-csts.

Throughout th nintnth cntury, msscrs, diss nd mlnutrition took hvy toll, lding to srious dclin in th full dscnt Indignous popultion. Howvr, th mixd dscnt popultion ws incrsing, du no doubt to th widsprd prctic of th rp of boriginl womn nd girls by whit sttlrs. Ths dvlopmnts ld to somwht diffrnt pproch from th uthoritis. In socil Drwinist survivl of th fittst trms, th borigins nd Torrs Strit Islndrs wr doomd rcs, dstind to xtinction bcus thy couldn't compt with mor dvncd socity. Th tsk of govrnmnt nd missionris ws thrfor to smooth th dying pillow. Indignous popl of mixd dscnt, howvr, wr to b bsorbd into uropn socity nd forcd to join th workforc. This policy of mrging would both sv th govrnmnt mony nd provid chp lbour for th dvloping cpitlist conomy, nd it md th rmovl of childrn n vn mor vitl prt of th procss, to kp full dscnt nd mixd dscnt borigins prt.

Dfinitions of boriginlity wr rbitrrily chngd to fit govrnmnt policy nd fcilitt th brk-up of fmilis nd communitis. cross th country, thr wr som 67 dfinitions of boriginlity, nshrind in ovr 700 pics of lgisltion. Popl wr dfind s full blood or hlf cst nd thr wr furthr offnsiv divisions such s qudroon nd octoroon.

Th first ntionl discussion of th boriginl problm took plc in 1937, t Commonwlth Stt Ntiv Wlfr Confrnc. It ws hr tht th notion of mrging bcm th policy of ssimiltion, which formd th bsis for govrnmnt ction right up to th 1970s. Th diffrnc btwn mrging nd ssimiltion ws lrgly on of dgr: n intnsifiction nd xtnsion of control ovr th Indignous popultion. Though couchd in smingly high-mindd phrss bout nbling mixd dscnt borigins to tk thir plc in th whit community on n qul footing with th whits nd improving thir lot, th uthoritis bgn from th implicit notion tht thr ws nothing of vlu in boriginl cultur. boriginlity ws to b dstroyd by rmoving hlf-cst childrn from thir communitis, thir lngug nd thir culturl hritg. ssimiltion ws not shrp brk from wht hd gon bfor, simply rfinmnt.

Morovr, th prctics which occurrd undr ssimiltion wr rcist through nd through. To rturn to Millicnt's story: th rson givn for tking th childrn ws tht th uthoritis dcidd us kids could pss s whitflls. But t th notorious Sistr Kt's Hom in Wstrn ustrli whr Millicnt spnt hr childhood, sh got vry diffrnt mssg:

Thy sid it ws vry dgrding to blong to n boriginl fmily nd tht I should b shmd of myslf, I ws infrior to whitflls. Thy trid to mk us ct lik whit kids, but t th sm tim w hd to giv up our st for whitfll bcus n boriginl nvr sits down whn whit prson is prsnt.

ll Stts hd child wlfr lgisltion which llowd childrn - blck or whit - to b tkn from thir prnts if th childrn wr dmd to b nglctd, uncontrollbl or dstitut. Prior to 1937, howvr, most Stts prfrrd to us th protctionist lgisltion whn tking Indignous childrn, bcus tht wy thy didn't hv to justify nything bfor court. Th uthority of th Chif Protctor or th Bord ws sufficint.

But vn ftr 1940, whn child wlfr lgisltion ws usd instd, proof of nglct could sily b dispnsd with. In mny css, boriginlity ws sufficint proof, nd th povrty in which borigins wr forcd to liv md thm trgts bcus it could b rgud th childrn wr dstitut. Girls who rn wy from situtions of sxul bus or got prgnnt wr lblld uncontrollbl. Th sprtions wr crrid out with xtrm brutlity, trumtising th childrn nd thir prnts for lif.

rly on morning in 1952 th mngr from Burnt Bridg Mission cm to our hom with policmn. I could hr him sying to Mum, `I m tking th two girls nd plcing thm in Cootmundr Hom.' My fthr ws sying, `Wht right hv you?' Th mngr sid h cn do wht h liks, thy sid my fthr hd bd chrctr (I prsum thy sid this s my fthr ssocitd with boriginl popl). Thy would not lt us kiss our fthr goodby, I will nvr forgt th sd look on his fcTht ws th lst tim I sw my fthr, h did within two yrs ftrNxt morning w wr in court. I rmmbr th judg sying, `Ths girls don't look nglctd to m'. Th mngr ws sying ll sorts of things. H wntd us plcd in Cootmundr Hom. So w wr snt wy

Childrn wr routinly tkn from thir mothrs t birth. Hr consnt ws somtims wivd, somtims forcd from hr with thrts, or sh ws simply told th child did.

My mothr told us tht th ldst dughtr ws twinnd in thos dys, if boriginls hd twins or triplts, thy'd tk th bbis wy. Mum swor blck nd blu tht boy [th twin] ws liv. But thy told hr tht h hd did. I only found out coupl of yrs go - tht boy, th nursing sistr took him. lot of bbis wr not rcordd.

Oftn, too, th prnts nd childrn wr trickd:

I ws t th post offic with my Mum nd unti [nd cousin]. Thy put us in th polic ut nd sid thy wr tking us to BroomBut whn w'd gon [bout tn mils] thy stoppd nd thrw th mothrs out of th cr. W jumpd on our mothrs' bcks, crying, trying not to b lft bhind. But th policmn pulld us off nd thrw us bck in th cr. Thy pushd th mothrs wy nd drov off, whil our mothrs wr chsing th cr, running nd crying ftr usWhn w got to Broom thy put m nd my cousin in th Broom lock-up. W wr only tn yrs old. W wr in th lock-up for two dys witing for th bot to Prth.

Childrn who wr lft tmporrily in homs or vn hospitls simply dispprd.

mothr [singl tngr] hd child in hom, nd wnt out to provid som sort of bsis for rring th childwhn th mothr cm bck, thy told hr tht th child hd did. nd 25 yrs ltr w hv rqust from prson to find his mothr(sh) now hs gon through th griving of th prson dying nd now coming to trms with his rsurrction.

Siblings who wr stoln wr oftn plcd sprtly, or vn whn plcd togthr, thir idntitis nd kinship wr not rvld. Th inquiry givs th xmpl of on witnss who, in sming ct of grtuitous crulty, ws introducd to his brothr on th dy tht brothr ws dprting th institution for fostr plcmnt. t confrnc following th rls of th rport in Mlbourn in 1997, n boriginl spkr rclld how h, long with n oldr boy, ws summond on dy to th offic of th institution in Bllrt whr th two of thm hd livd for svrl yrs, introducd to n boriginl womn nd told sh ws thir mothr.

nd you didn't hv to b stoln to xprinc th ffcts of th prctic:

vry morning our popl would crush chrcol nd mix tht with niml ft nd smothr tht ll ovr us, so tht whn th polic cm thy could only s blck childrnW wr told lwys to b on th lrt nd, if whit popl cm, to run into th bush or run nd stnd bhind th trs s stiff s pokrnd hidnd if th boriginl group ws tkn unwrs, thy would stuff us into flour bgs nd prtnd w wrn't thr. W wr toldif w snzdw'd b tkn off nd wy from th rDuring th rids on th cmps it ws not unusul for popl to b shot - in th rm or th lg. You cn undrstnd th trror tht w livd in

Th pc of rmovls incrsd through th 1950s nd 1960s. Dspit th difficulty in stblishing prcis numbrs (prtly bcus of lck - or flsifiction - of documnttion, prtly bcus mny rmovls wr illgl vn undr th vrious rcist lws in oprtion) th inquiry concludd tht btwn 1910 nd 1970, btwn on in thr nd on in tn childrn wr forcibly rmovd, nd [I]n tht tim not on Indignous fmily hs scpd th ffcts.

On of th most hrt-rnding spcts of th rport is rding bout th Indignous prnts who blmd thmslvs for th loss of thir childrn. Th NSW brnch of Link-Up (n orgnistion which works to runit sprtd fmilis) rportd to th inquiry:

w found tht boriginl womn wr unwilling nd unbl to spk bout th immns pin, grif nd nguish tht losing thir childrn hd cusd thmW s tht thy judg thmslvs hrshly, nvr forgiving thmslvs for losing thir childrn - no mttr tht thy wr prt of ongoing systmtic rmovl of boriginl childrnThy wr md to fl filurs; unworthy of loving nd cring for thir own childrn; thy wr dnid prticiption in th futur of thir community.

Th ccounts of thos who obsrvd this pin show clrly how th livs of th prnts, nd th widr Indignous community, wr shttrd.

I rmmbr my unty, it ws hr dughtr tht got tkn. Sh usd to crry ths lttrs round with hr. Thy wr rfrnc lttrs from th whitflls in town[sying tht] sh ws good, rspctbl womnSh judgd hrslf nd sh flt th community judgd hr for ltting th wlfr gt hr childSh crrid thos lttrs with hr, foldd up, s proof, until th dy sh did.

Such ccounts lso show how th prctic of stling thir childrn is t th root of mny problms xprincd by Indignous popl tody, prticulrly substnc bus.

My prnts wr continully trying to gt us bck. vntully thy gv up nd strtd drinking. Thy sprtd. My fthr ndd up in jil. H did bfor my mothr. On hr dth bd sh clld his nm nd ll us kids. Sh did with brokn hrt.

Non-Indignous fmilis who doptd childrn wr lso lid to - told tht mothrs who wr srching for thir child wr dd, or hd rfusd to tk rsponsibility for thm. Som of ths fmilis told th inquiry thy r wrckd with guilt nd rgrt tht thy wr unknowingly complicit in such brbrism.

W would nvr hv dprivd ny mothr of hr child, or ny child of its mothrTh doctor told m how this child's mothr ws vry young [sh ws ctully 20]plus th bby ws nvr wntd right from th strt. If this ws tru, why did sh tk hr poor fril bby hom? H would not fd. Sh took him bck [to th hospitl] nd it ws th lst sh sw of him. Sh sid thy would not giv him bck

In 1960 my wif nd I pplid to dopt n boriginl bby, ftr rding in th nwspprs tht ths bbis wr rmining in institutionlisd crLtr tht yr w wr offrd bby who hd bn crd for sinc birth in Church run Bbis HomW wr told, nd truly blivd, tht his mothr ws dd nd his fthr unknown

Dspit th lov of his doptiv fmily, this child, Kn, grw up fling isoltd nd lintd, subjctd to constnt rcism, nd svrl tims ttmptd suicid.

Whn Kn ws ightn h found his nturl fmily, thr sistrs nd brothr. His mothr ws no longr living. Sh did som yrs rlir whn Kn ws four. Bcus of th long timspn, strong bonds with his fmily mmbrs could not b stblishd.

lthough supposd nglct providd th justifiction for rmoving childrn from thir prnts, mny childrn nvr xprincd such trribl conditions nd bus until thy wr tkn wy.

nd for thm to sy sh [mothr] nglctd us! I ws nglctd whn I ws in this govrnmnt joint down thr. I didn't nd up 15 dys in hospitl bd [with bronchitis] whn I ws with m mum nd dd.

Ths r popl tlling you to b Christin nd thy trt you lss thn bloody niml. On boy, his lg ws tht gngrn w could smll him ll down th dormitoris bfor thy finlly got him trtd proprly.

Th luckir ons wr doptd; othrs wnt to fostr fmilis, somtims succssion of thm. But vn thos who wr fortunt nough to b plcd with loving fmilis flt nd rgrttd th ffcts of sprtion (s th discussion of bnfits blow). Oftn too, th doptions or fostring rrngmnts didn't work out. Possibly th most notorious cs of this ws tht of Jms (Russll) Svg, who ws not only rmovd from his fmily, but from th country whn his doptiv fmily movd to th US. Lik most stoln childrn, Russll hd svr problms growing up, nd ndd up thrown out on th strts t th g of twlv. Wors ws to com: svrl yrs go, ftr gtting involvd with drugs nd lcohol lik so mny othr stoln childrn, h ndd up in jil for lif on murdr nd rp chrgs, nrrowly scping th dth pnlty. Th scndl surrounding this cs put spotlight on th whol prctic of stling Indignous childrn.

In kping with th objctivs of th ssimiltion policy, mny childrn wr not told of thir Indignous bckground. Childrn wr bullid into dopting whit wys of living nd thinking, only to suffr bus nd dnigrtion t hom nd school for th drknss of thir skin. Othrs wr tught rcist ttituds towrds Indignous popl only to find - oftn bcus of constnt tunting bout thir complxion - tht thy thmslvs blongd to th popl towrds whom thy flt disgust. Th dnigrtion of ll things boriginl ws on of th most common xprincs rportd to th inquiry.

During this plcmnt [with fostr fmily], I ws cutly wr of my colour, nd I knw I ws diffrnt from th othr mmbrs of thir fmily. t no stg ws I vr told of my boriginlityWhn I'd sy`why m I diffrnt colour?' thy would lugh t m nd tll m to drink plnty of milk, `nd thn you will look mor lik us.' Th othr sons would cll m nms such s `thir littl bo' nd ts m. t th tim I didn't know wht this mnt, but it did rlly hurt

W wr told our mothr ws n lcoholic nd tht sh ws prostitut nd sh didn't cr bout us. Thy [fostr fmily] usd to wrn us tht whn w got oldr w'd hv to wtch it bcus w'd turn into sluts nd lcoholics, so w hd to b vry crful. If you wr whit you didn't hv tht dirtinss in you. It ws in our brd, in us to b lik tht.

But gnrlly spking, thos who frd th worst wr thos - th vst mjority - who wr put into mostly Church-run institutions, such s Sistr Kt's Hom, Kinchl Boys' Hom, Cootmundr Girls' Hom nd so on. Th xprincs from ths institutions rmin lik nightmr. Mny inmts rmmbr th constnt hungr:

Thr ws no food, nothing. W ws ll huddld up in roomlik littl puppy-dogon th floor Somtims t night tim w'd cry with hungr, no foodW hd to scroung in th town dump, ting old brd, smshing tomto suc bottls, licking thm. Hlf of th tim th food w got ws from th rubbish dump.

On top of tht, thr wr crul punishmnts for th slightst offnc:

I rmmbr onc, I must hv bn 8 or 9, nd I ws lockd in th old morgu. Th dults who workd thr would tll us of th things tht hppnd in thr, so you cn imgin wht I wnt through. I scrmd ll night, but no-on cm to gt m.

I'v sn girls nkd, strppd to chirs nd whippd. W'v ll bn through th locking up priod, lockd in drk rooms. I hd problm of finting whn I ws growing up nd I got bltd vry tim I fintdI'v sn my sistr drggd by th hir into thos block rooms nd bltd bcus sh's trying to protct m.

Th infmous . O. Nvill (W Chif Protctor 1915-40) wrot book in 1947 in which h listd som of th punishmnts mtd out by his stff - trring nd fthring, chining girls to tbl lgs (this ws don by n x-Missionry, nd good mn too whom Nvill clrly rgrts hving to dismiss), shving hds nd so on.

But som storis wr vn mor horrndous:

Cootmundrws vry strict nd crulMum rmmbrd onc girl who did not mov too quick. Sh ws tid to th old bll post nd bltd continuously. Sh did tht night, still tid to th post, no girl vr knw wht hppnd to th body or whr sh ws burid.

ky spct of th ssimiltion projct ws to prvnt th childrn spking thir own lngug. No ffort ws sprd on this, bcus it ws on of th most ffctiv wys to prmnntly sprt th childrn from thir prnts nd communitis.

Y'know, I cn rmmbr w just usd to tlk lingo. [In th Hom] thy usd to tll us not to tlk tht lngug, tht it's th dvil's lngug. nd thy'd wsh our mouths with sop. W sort hd to sit down with th Bibl lngug ll th tim. So it sort wipd out ll our lngug tht w knw.

This mnt tht vn whn childrn nd prnts wr subsquntly runitd, thy oftn couldn't spk to ch othr xcpt through n intrprtr.

Th ccounts givn to th Stoln Gnrtions inquiry lso bound with xmpls of sxul bus of both girls nd boys, which fits with th rvltions bout sxul bus in churchs nd institutions vrywhr (though th rport nots tht for girls in prticulr, th risk of sxul ssult in fostr plcmnt ws fr grtr thn in ny othr). lmost on in tn boys nd just ovr on in tn girls rportd tht thy wr sxully busd in childrn's institution, whil on in tn boys nd thr in tn girls rportd th sm for fostr plcmnts.

Thr ws tmpring with th boysth popl would com in to work with th childrn, thy would grb th boys' pniss, ply round with thm nd kiss thm nd things lik thisIt ws sn to b th whit mn's wy of lookin' ftr you. It nvr hppnd with n boriginl.

Girls who rportd sxul ssults wr told to stop tlling lis nd oftn btn.

my fostr fthr molstd m. H would msturbt in front of m, touch my privt prts nd gt m to touch his. I rmmbr onc hving bth with my cloths on 'cus I ws too scrd to tk thm off. I ws scrd of th drk 'cus my fostr fthr would oftn com t night. I ws scrd to go to th outsid toilt s h would oftn stop m on th wy bckSo I would oftn wt th bdI onc ttmptd to tll th locl Prist t th Ctholic Church nd h told m to sy tn Hil Mry's for tlling lis. So I thought this ws how `norml' non-boriginl fmilis wr. I ws tkn to vrious doctors who dignosd m s `uncontrollbl' or `lcking in intllignc'.

young Koori womn, with th hlp of n mployr, trid to hv formr mployr who hd rpd hr chrgd with th offnc. lthough two mdicl xmintions confirmd th rp, th Protction Bord officils to whom th mttr ws rportd first ccusd th victim of bing sxul mnic nd thn hd hr committd to Prrmtt Mntl Hospitl whr sh rmind for 21 yrs.

totl of 777 popl nd orgnistions from ll ovr ustrli providd vidnc or submissions to th inquiry. This chptr provids only som smpls of th xprinc of th stoln gnrtions nd thir communitis. Th totl pictur is dvstting ccount of rcism nd th ttmptd dstruction of n ntir popl nd its cultur.

W my go hom, but w cnnot rliv our childhoods. W my runit with our mothrs, fthrs, sistrs, brothrs, untis, uncls, communitis, but w cnnot rliv th 20, 30, 40 yrs tht w spnt without thir lov nd cr, nd thy cnnot undo th grif nd mourning thy flt whn w wr sprtd from thm. W cn go hom to ourslvs s boriginls, but this dos not s th ttcks inflictd on our hrts, minds, bodis nd souls, by crtkrs who thought thir mission ws to limint us s boriginls.

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